Immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of rhesus-human, reassortant rotavirus vaccine in Belém, Brazil
Linhares, Alexandre da Costa
Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol
Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira
Freitas, Ronaldo Barros de
Oliveira, C. S
Monteiro, Talita Antônia Furtado
Lins-Lainson, Zéa Constante
Ramos, Francisco Lúzio de Paula
Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva
A tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus (RRV-TV) vaccine (4 x 10(4) plaque-forming units/dose) was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 540 Brazilian infants. Doses of vaccine or placebo were given at ages 1, 3 and 5 months. No significant differences were noted in the occurrence of diarrhoea or vomiting in vaccine and placebo recipients following each dose. Low-grade fever occurred on days 3-5 in 2-3 per cent of vaccinees after the first dose, but not after the second or third doses of vaccine. An IgA antibody response to rhesus rotavirus (RRV) occurred in 58 per cent of vaccinees and 33 per cent of placebo recipients. Neutralizing antibody responses to individual serotypes did not exceed 20 per cent when measured by fluorescent focus reduction, but exceeded 40 per cent when assayed by plaque reduction neutralization. There were 91 cases of rotavirus diarrhoea among the 3-dose (vaccine or placebo) recipients during two years of follow-up, 36 of them among children given the vaccine. Overall vaccine efficacy was 8 per cent (P = 0.005) against any diarrhoea and 35 per cent (P = 0.03) against any rotavirus diarrhoea. Protection during the first year of follow-up, when G serotype 1 rotavirus predominated, was 57 per cent (P = 0.008), but fell to 12 per cent in the second year. Similar results were obtained when analysis was restricted to episodes in which rotavirus was the only identified pathogen. There was a tendency for enhanced protection by vaccine against illness associated with an average of 6 or more stools per day. These results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further studies of this vaccine in developing countries using a higher dosage in an attempt to improve its immunogenicity and efficacy.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citationLINHARES, Alexandre da Costa et al. Immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of rhesus-human, reassortant rotavirus vaccine in Belém, Brazil. Bulletin of The World Health Organization, v. 74, n. 5, p. 491-500, 1996.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-decsPrimaryVacinas contra Rotavirus / uso terapêutico
Vacinas contra Rotavirus / análise
Vacinas contra Rotavirus / imunologia