Proposed chromosomal phylogeny for the South American primates of the Callitrichidae family (Platyrrhini)
Nagamachi, Cleusa Y
Pieczarka, Julio C
Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro
Barros, Regina M. S
Mattevi, Margarete S
Cytogenetic and cytotaxonomic studies (G, C, sequential G/C, and NOR banding) were performed on 110 specimens representing the four genera of South American primates of the family Callitrichidae: Cebuella (C. pygmaea), Callithrix, groups argentata (C. argentata, C. emiliae, C. chrysoleuca, C. humeralifera, C. mauesi), and jacchus (C. aurita, C. geoffroyi, C. jacchus, C. kuhli, C. penicillata), Leontopithecus (L. chrysomelas, L. rosalia), and Saguinus (S. midas midas, S. m. niger). Mitotic chromosomes are characterized, and the rearrangements distinguishing the karyotypes of the taxa are inferred from arm homologies. The results were then converted into numerical data and submitted to cladistic analysis. The following conclusions were achieved: 1) Five karyotypic classes were observed, which correspond to the five taxa studied. Differences between them are as follows: a) Cebuella (2n = 44, 10 acrocentrics, A + 32 bi‐armed autosomes, bi) and the argentata group (2n = 44, 10A + 32bi) are different from each other due to a reciprocal translocation; b) both can be distinguished from the jacchus group (2n = 46, 14A + 30bi) by a centric fusion/fission rearrangement and a paracentric inversion; c) Leontopithecus (2n = 46, 14A + 30bi) and Saguinus (2n = 46, 14A + 30bi) differ from the jacchus group by a reciprocal translocation and three paracentric inversions; and d) Saguinus is different from the others by one paracentric inversion and pericentric inversions in at least four pairs of acrocentric autosomes. 2) The cladistic analysis separates Cebus (used as an outgroup) from the Callitrichidae groups, which forms a clade. Among the Callitrichidae, marmosets (Cebuella and Callithrix) form a sub‐clade, Cebuella and the argentata group being more closely related to each other than both are to the jacchus group. Tamarins (Leontopithecus and Saguinus) are also quite close, so that if one was not derived from the other, they with the marmosets share a common ancestor. Among the tamarins, Leontopithecus is karyotypically closest to the marmosets, specifically to the jacchus group. 3) Based on the chromosome information and considering the possible direction of the evolutionary changes (primitivity or phyletic dwarfism hypothesis, previously advanced by other authors), it was possible to propose the ancestral karyotypes and to develop two alternatives for the origin, differentiation and dispersion of the callitrichid. Both proposals are plausible, but when the geographical distribution is considered, the phyletic dwarfism hypothesis seems to be the most probable.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citationNAGAMACHI, Cleusa Y. et al. Proposed chromosomal phylogeny for the South American primates of the Callitrichidae family (Platyrrhini). American Journal of Primatology, v. 49, n. 2, p. 133-152, Oct. 1999.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-decsPrimaryPrimatas / anatomia & histologia
Callitrichinae / genética
Cromossomos / genética