Ganglion cell and displaced amacrine cell density distribution in the retina of the Howler Monkey (Alouatta caraya)
Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro
Athaide, Luana Modesto de
Gomes, Bruno Duarte
Finlay, Barbara L
Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima
Unlike all other New World (platyrrine) monkeys, both male and female howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are obligatory trichromats. In all other platyrrines, only females can be trichromats, while males are always dichromats, as determined by multiple behavioral, electrophysiological, and genetic studies. In addition to obligatory trichromacy, Alouatta has an unusual fovea, with substantially higher peak cone density in the foveal pit than every other diurnal anthropoid monkey (both platyrrhines and catarrhines) and great ape yet examined, including humans. In addition to documenting the general organization of the retinal ganglion cell layer in Alouatta, the distribution of cones is compared to retinal ganglion cells, to explore possible relationships between their atypical trichromacy and foveal specialization. The number and distribution of retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells were determined in six flat-mounted retinas from five Alouatta caraya. Ganglion cell density peaked at 0.5 mm between the fovea and optic nerve head, reaching 40,700–45,200 cells/mm2. Displaced amacrine cell density distribution peaked between 0.5–1.75 mm from the fovea, reaching mean values between 2,050–3,100 cells/mm2. The mean number of ganglion cells was 1,133,000¡79,000 cells and the mean number of displaced amacrine cells was 537,000¡61,800 cells, in retinas of mean area 641¡62 mm2. Ganglion cell and displaced amacrine cell density distribution in the Alouatta retina was consistent with that observed among several species of diurnal Anthropoidea, both platyrrhines and catarrhines. The principal alteration in the Alouatta retina appears not to be in the number of any retinal cell class, but rather a marked gradient in cone density within the fovea, which could potentially support high chromatic acuity in a restricted central region.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citationMUNIZ, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro et al. Ganglion cell and displaced amacrine cell density distribution in the retina of the Howler Monkey (Alouatta caraya). PLoS ONE, v. 9, n. 12, p. e115291, Dec. 2014.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-decsPrimaryPrimatas / anatomia & histologia
Alouatta / anatomia & histologia
Células Ganglionares da Retina / ultraestrutura
Coloração e Rotulagem / veterinária