The complexity of respiratory disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: from immunopathogenesis to respiratory therapy
Falcão, Luiz Fábio Magno
Pontes, Lucieny da Silva
Silva, Bruno Giovanni Afonso da
Franco, Karen Margarete Vieira da Silva
Costa, Luiz Adriano Araujo da
Rocha, Rodrigo Santiago Barbosa
Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões
Covid-19, a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, may present with polymorphic symptomatology and subclinical, neurological, gastrointestinal, dermatological, renal and severe acute respiratory manifestations. The diffuse alveolar damage caused by the disease presents with fibrin deposition, oedema, lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate, destruction of epithelial cells, hyaline membrane formation and occasional angiogenesis formation of microthrombi. A common radiological finding is bilateral ground glass opacity, present even in mild cases. Severe cases occur mainly among the elderly and individuals with underlying comorbidities. Here, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology of the disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, interaction of the virus with the immune system, and subsequent dysfunctional immune response, essential for progression of Covid-19. We also discuss the role of the nervous system as a possible aggravating agent of the respiratory condition and propose a protocol for airway management based on the pathophysiological and immunological characteristics of the disease. Finally, we highlight the implications of such approaches for future therapeutic intervention.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citationFALÇÃO, Luiz Fábio Magno et al. The complexity of respiratory disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: from immunopathogenesis to respiratory therapy. Reviews in Medical Virology, v. 31, n. 2, e2167, Mar. 2021.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-decsPrimarySíndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave / imunologia
Vírus da SARS / isolamento & purificação
Coronavirus / patogenicidade
Infecções por Coronavirus
Lesão Pulmonar / patologia
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas