An epidemic of sylvatic yellow fever in the Southeast region of Maranhao State, Brazil, 1993-1994: epidemiologic and entomologic findings
Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa
Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro
Moraes, Mário Augusto Pinto de
Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da
Rosa, Elizabeth Salbé Travassos da
Barros, Vera Lúcia Reis de Souza
Rosa, Amélia Paes de Andrade Travassos da
Yellow fever virus transmission was very active in Maranhao State in Brazil in 1993 and 1994. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the magnitude of the epidemic. In 1993, a total of 932 people was examined for yellow fever from Maranhao: 70 were positive serologically, histopathologically, and/or by virus isolation, and another four cases were diagnosed clinically and epidemiologically. In Mirador (17,565 inhabitants), the incidence was 3.5 per 1,000 people (case fatality rate [number of deaths/number of cases diagnosed] = 16.4 percent), while in a rural yellow fever risk area (14,659 inhabitants), the incidence was 4.2 and the case-fatality rate was 16.1 percent (10 of 62). A total of 45.2 percent (28 of 62) asymptomatic infections were registered. In 1994, 49 serum samples were obtained and 16 cases were confirmed (two by virus isolation, two by seroconversion, and 12 by serology). No fatal cases were reported. In 1993, 936 potential yellow fever vectors were captured in Mirador and a single strain was isolated from a pool of Haemagogus janthinomys (infection rate = 0.16 percent). In 1994, 16 strains were isolated from 1,318 Hg. janthinomys (infection rate = 1.34 percent) and one Sabethes chloropterus (infection rate = 1.67 percent). Our results suggest that this was the most extensive outbreak of yellow fever in the last 20 years in Brazil. It is also clear that the lack of vaccination was the principal reason for the epidemic, which occurred between April and June, during the rainy season, a period in which the mosquito population in the forest increases.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citationVASCONCELOS, Pedro Fernando da Costa et al. An epidemic of sylvatic yellow fever in the Southeast region of Maranhao State, Brazil, 1993-1994: epidemiologic and entomologic findings. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 57, n. 2, p. 132-137, Feb. 1997.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-decsPrimaryFebre Amarela / epidemiologia
Febre Amarela / mortalidade
Febre Amarela / transmissão
Culicidae / virologia
Surtos de Doenças
Vírus da Febre Amarela / isolamento & purificação